The History of School Uniform

Traditionally, many New Zealand intermediate and high schools, and state-integrated and private primary schools, have followed the British system of school uniforms, although it is common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and long trousers.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. By mid, compulsory school uniforms were repealed and it remains so to this day. The dress code in primary and secondary grades for boys comprises dark blue, khaki, or black shorts with a white open-collar short-sleeved shirt, white ankle socks or long dark socks, and brown or black trainers.

Most schools in the United States do not require uniforms, but instead enforce a standardized dress code of what types of clothing are appropriate for students to wear to school.
Traditionally, many New Zealand intermediate and high schools, and state-integrated and private primary schools, have followed the British system of school uniforms, although it is common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and long trousers.
Most schools in the United States do not require uniforms, but instead enforce a standardized dress code of what types of clothing are appropriate for students to wear to school.
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In , 20% of public elementary schools (K-6) enforced a uniform policy, while 12% of secondary schools () and 30% of combined schools (K) required uniforms. A higher proportion of schools located in cities had mandatory uniforms in than schools in suburban, town, and rural areas.

In , 20% of public elementary schools (K-6) enforced a uniform policy, while 12% of secondary schools () and 30% of combined schools (K) required uniforms. A higher proportion of schools located in cities had mandatory uniforms in than schools in suburban, town, and rural areas.

The arguments over requiring school uniforms in American public schools began in the s, with such comments as preventing individuality or freedom of expression at the top of the list of reasons against doing so. However, arguments for school uniforms have included reducing peer pressure to have the latest designer clothing and saving parents money on their children's clothing by requiring the same uniform every year. Those who support school uniforms argue that if all of the students are wearing the same clothing, they will take school more seriously instead of worrying about what they're wearing.

Since many places of employment also require uniforms, this will prepare the students for future jobs, and gang violence will decrease because members will be unable to identify their rivals by their clothing. On the other side of the coin, however, are those who are against the idea.

They claim that the rebellious students will alter their uniforms, forcing teachers to spend more time policing the uniforms every day. Bullies will continue to persecute their victims over non-clothing-related subjects such as height, weight, hair and so forth. And if an older student physically attacks a younger one, a description of the attacker will be of little use, given that everyone else in the school is wearing the same thing.

This is based on the assumption that uniforms are the direct cause of behavioral and academic outcome changes. Another area of controversy regarding school uniform and dress code policies revolve around the issue of gender. Nowadays, more teenagers are more frequently "dressing to articulate, or confound gender identity and sexual orientation ", which brings about "responses from school officials that ranged from indifferences to applause to bans".

Instances include the following: Although not all schools in the United States are required to wear school uniforms, the United States is slowly adapting the use of school uniforms. In some areas uniforms have become essential due to the poverty level that the schools reside in. Stephanie Northen of The Guardian wrote that school uniforms are less controversial in the United Kingdom compared to the United States and are usually not opposed on free speech grounds.

Advocates of uniforms have proposed multiple reasons supporting their implementation and claiming their success in schools. A variety of these claims have no research supporting them.

Some of these pros include the following: Advocates believe that uniforms affect student safety by: Kathleen Wade conducted an experiment to see if bullying and gang presence was higher in uniform or non-uniform schools. The research was done with multiple schools where she gave a questionnaire to both students, and faculty to see if there was a significant difference. Her results showed that bullying and gang presence significantly decreases with students wearing school uniforms. Wearing uniforms leads to decreased behavior problems by increasing attendance rates, lowering suspension rates, and decreasing substance use among the student body.

Proponents also attribute positive psychological outcomes like increased self-esteem, increased spirit, and reinforced feelings of oneness among students to wearing uniforms. Additional proponent arguments include that school uniforms: Currently pros of school uniforms center around how uniforms impact schools' environments. The opposing side of uniforms have claimed their ineffectiveness using a variety of justifications, a variety of which have research supporting them. Some of the cons to school uniforms include the following legal, financial, and questionable effectiveness concerns: Clothing is viewed as a mean of expression — making all students wear the same clothes or limit them to what they can wear can disrupt their sense of identity.

One of the main controversies can lie within Dress Code Policies vs. However, students can wear clothing artifacts that express their religion. Another negative aspect of school uniforms is that it can be sexist.

Boys and girls are not disciplined the same when it comes to dress codes. Research on how school uniforms and school dress codes influence the student can be inconclusive, but many people oppose to school uniforms and strict dress code policies. According to Marian Wilde, [45] additional opponent arguments include that school uniforms:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable.

Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This section contains a pro and con list , which is sometimes inappropriate. Please help improve it by integrating both sides into a more neutral presentation, or remove this template if you feel that such a list is appropriate for this article.

Fashion portal Schools portal. Blazers, Badges and Boaters: Pictorial History of School Uniform. Are They A Good Fit? Education and Urban Society. Education and Urban Society, 35 4 , — Uniforms in Public Schools: A Decade of Research and Debate. Education Commission of the States.

Retrieved 30 November Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 28 September The Five Freedoms - Court Case. Almost all secondary schools as well as some elementary schools require students to wear uniforms. Uniforms in mainland China usually consist of five sets: A formal set is worn on Mondays or special occasions school anniversaries, school ceremonies, etc. They consist of a white collared shirt with a sweater on top and a skirt for girls or a suit for boys.

There is one formal set for summer and one set for winter. Everyday uniforms for boys in the winter usually consist of a zippered sweater and trousers and a collared shirt usually white. Thinner materials are worn in the spring and fall and short or long trousers may be worn in the summer.

The everyday uniforms for girls are very similar to the boys' uniform. It is relatively common for there to be some kind of sponsored advertisement on some non-formal school uniform shirts, though this trend has fluctuated in recent years. In Colombia, all students are required to wear uniforms in public and private schools. Uniforms in Colombia consist of two sets, one for everyday use and a sports one for physical education. Everyday uniforms for girls generally include a knee-length skirt, a white T-shirt with a vest, and white calf-length socks.

For boys, the uniform generally includes dark-coloured long trousers and a short- or long-sleeved shirt. The shoes for both girls and boys are black lace-up shoes sometimes the shoes may be dark blue or wine-coloured, depending on the uniform colours and the shirts usually have the school's symbol at the left side.

The sports uniform includes sweat pants, a collared T-shirt, and white sports shoes. The designs and the colours of the uniforms depend on the school's colours and the principal's preference.

In El Salvador, all students from public schools and private schools are required to wear uniforms. Uniforms vary depending on the school. Xavier Darcos , a former teacher and Minister of Education from to , is an advocate of the reintroduction of uniforms: This removes the visible differences in social status or wealth.

This is an additional factor of integration". Since March , the students of the Boarding School of Excellence Sourdun wear a uniform with the insignia of their establishment. Les lycées de la défense, formerly known as military schools , require their students to wear uniforms. At some universities, the academic dress is becoming popular. There is no tradition of wearing school uniforms in Germany, and today, almost all students of state schools, private schools or universities do not wear school uniforms.

However, certain garments have been common to students in former times:. From the 16th century, students especially of secondary or grammar schools and similar institutions were often subject to regulations that prescribed, for example, modest and not too stylish attire.

In many cases these regulations were part of wider laws concerning the clothing of all citizens of certain social classes. A blue coat became a widespread obligatory status symbol of students of secondary schools; it fell out of use during the latter half of the 18th century. In more recent times, school uniforms in any real sense did not exist outside of convent schools and private boarding schools. At times, certain fashions became so widespread that they approached uniform status; this is true in particular for so-called student hats Schülermützen that became widespread from the s on and remained somewhat popular until they were banned by the Nazis.

Their wearing was advocated by teachers and the students themselves and occasionally made mandatory, but never on a national or statewide level. Another instance are the sailor suits that became fashionable around the turn of the 19th century. These, too, were not usually a prescribed uniform.

The Nazis banned student hats — the last remaining, if voluntary, form of unified student clothing — because they considered them an attribute of class society. They did, however, institute mandatory membership in the uniformed Hitler Youth HJ from until their fall. HJ uniforms were worn in the HJ training academies and in the Napolas ; students of other schools sometimes wore them to school at their own discretion.

In recent times, the introduction of school uniforms has been discussed, but usually the expression "uniform" the word is the same in German is avoided in favour of terms like "school clothing" "Schulkleidung". School clothing has been introduced in a small number of schools, for example in Hamburg -Sinstorf in , and in Friesenheim and Haag Oberbayern in In these cases the clothes are collections of shirts, sweaters, and the like, catering to contemporary fashion senses.

Uniforms in a more traditional sense are almost never proposed in earnest. The debate on mandatory school uniforms intensified in Germany when two Muslim girls dressed in burkas arrived at a school in Bonn in The girls' actions were interpreted as political action and were subsequently suspended from school. Then-Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries in an interview with the Welt am Sonntag stated that the simple solution to the issue under consideration is mandatory introduction of school uniforms for boys and girls across Germany.

She further argued that school uniforms would help to prevent conflicts arising from religious or political differences. The proposal was met with opposition from the teacher union and opposition political parties. The teacher union argued that school uniforms are not the solution for integration problems nor the issue of fashion obsession.

The leader of the teacher union Heinz-Peter Meidinger also added that the school uniforms have been a controversial issue in Germany over the years. A senior member of the Green Party, Krista Sager, also said that the introduction of school uniforms would be unacceptable state interference in religious matters.

She then proposed that individual schools have to find their own solutions and rejected solutions imposed by government. She further noted that school uniforms are no longer up to date and their imposition would be rejected by the current generation of students. The Conference of Education Ministers, a body which decides on school policies, also kicked back against school uniforms.

They cited historical reasons dating back to WWII with memories of Hitler Youth's uniform still fresh in people's minds. They also concluded that the imposition of school uniforms would be excessive government encroachment on personal liberty of pupils and parents. The Bildungsstreik movement fights against school uniforms due to their belief that it represents some kind of militarism.

All children have to wear school uniforms in Ghana. Pupils in public schools have the same type of school uniform with the school's emblem is imprinted on the left chest. This helps to distinguish pupils of one school from the other. Private schools determine which uniforms their pupils wear. Ghana like most African countries is characterised by low incomes and high levels of poverty.

Hence the cost of school uniforms acts as one of the barriers to educational access. In an effort to achieve universal primary education the government, as part of its educational policy, initiated free school uniform distribution throughout the country in Over 8, school uniforms have been distributed by the government to needy students in the communities from the Tarkwa Nsuaem municipality, one of the mining districts in Ghana, which is severely affected by poverty.

This is part of a program instituted in to supply disadvantaged children with school uniforms. The vast majority of schools in the former British colony adopted uniforms similar to that of British schools, while Catholic schools in Hong Kong usually follow the tradition of Catholic school uniforms. A number of older Christian girls' schools established before WWII, however, retain the heritage of using the Chinese cheongsam as their uniform, [23] such as St. Sailor suits are also used as uniforms in some kindergartens for boys and girls, and secondary schools but for girls only, for example the Bishop Hall Jubilee School and New Method College.

Uniforms are compulsory in India in both public and private schools. The boys' uniforms are often made of a light-coloured shirt, long trousers usually blue, white or black, and those of the girls are often a shirt and a skirt. At the state level, the secondary schools are required to use a Shalwar Kameez. This is not compulsory but they do have certain specific dress code. Many schools require students to wear shoes, ties and ID cards, and comb their hair down and keep it clean and short.

Long hair is tied in braids. Uniform is one of the most important components of school life and is taken very seriously in India. Some institutions also require the use of a tie, especially the schools run by Christian missionaries, and the Indian government does not prohibit the children to have religious symbols, so the Muslim girls can wear the veil hijab burka and Sikh boys a turban in addition to the uniform.

However, most of the schools, whether public or private, prohibit students to have a ponytail or dyed hair. In Indonesia , school uniforms are mandatory for every student. They can be simply described as below for each stage of education:. Public schools in Indonesia tolerate religious freedoms. For example, Muslim girls may opt to wear long-sleeve shirts, longer skirts, and jilbab to cover their heads. Most schools in Indonesia also have a batik uniform, usually worn on Thursday or Friday.

This kind of uniform consists of a batik short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt, with long or short trousers for SMA and below-knee or long skirts for females. The motifs and colours of batik depend on the school. These neckties and vests may vary from school to school in colour and sewing pattern, even among public schools. Nowadays, with the increase of private schools in Indonesia, most private schools have their own signature school uniform.

Most consist of shirts with shorts or trousers for males, and skirts for females, only with differences on the colour. Every school has its own standard grooming. Males are not allowed to have long hair. Accessories are also normally prohibited for males, except for watches.

Females are usually allowed to use simple accessories such as watches, earrings, and sometimes bracelets. All students are prohibited from colouring their hair or having tattoos. Most schools pay attention to the shoes that can be worn. Black or white sneakers with white laces are the most common shoes.

The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve of a shirt, consist of school's name and location, and some have their own school's logo.

Others prefer to wear the school's logo as a lapel or breast plastic or metal pin. Students' names are usually on the right side of the shirt and embedded by sewing, ironing or as a detachable badge. Some schools usually "SMP" and "SMA" distinguish the grade of their students by stripes on the official neckties issued or an emblem below the school emblem it can be stripes, chevrons or numbers.

Nowadays some schools require the students to wear an Indonesian flag school badge sewn on top of their left pocket. The scouts pramuka uniform is used in many schools in Indonesia at least once a week. It consists of light-brown short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirts, with dark-brown shorts or trousers, and below-knee skirts or longer for females.

The common day to wear the scout uniform usually falls on Wednesday, Friday, or Saturday. The scout uniform has two breast pockets. Above right pocket is the student's name. Male students wear International Scout Organization logo above their name and female students on their lapel. According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat , about 1, Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms. School uniforms used to be the norm in the state's early days, but have since fallen out of favour.

However, in recent years, the number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more. Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between affluent children and those less well-off. Nowadays school uniforms are mainly associated with "national religious" schools within the Israeli system of education. In the Haredi or ultra-Orthodox school system, uniforms are compulsory in essentially all girls' schools.

In the vast majority of these, the style adopted by the Beit Ya'akov network is used: In cold weather, a Yale-blue sweater may be added. A small fraction of schools alter the color scheme to pink and burgundy, while otherwise retaining the same overall appearance. In boys' schools there is usually not an identifiable school uniform, distinct from what is considered acceptable for ordinary street wear. However, the standards of acceptable street wear for boys and men in Haredi communities are so precise and exacting that in almost all cases all of the boys in a particular school will be dressed identically.

In non-Haredi schools today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the school logo. In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters. Although the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow students to customise and express themselves even while wearing a uniform.

The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even the less well-off can acquire them. In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside school.

However, until the early s many high schools required girls to wear black grembiule resembling a doctor smock on top of their clothes: Perhaps this was because at one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes as opposed to junior schools and elementary , and girls may be required to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts.

Indeed, this policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the s and later abolished. Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children with a grembiulino , i.

Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white grembiulino , while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket, usually blue or black. In other cases both boys and girls may be required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule.

Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it. Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk". In the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiuli were harmful to pupils. In July Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a debate in the Italian press. Japan introduced school uniforms in the late 19th century.

Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. In the majority of elementary schools, students are not required to wear a uniform to school.

Where they are required, many boys wear white shirts, short trousers, and caps. Young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year. Girls' uniforms might include a grey pleated skirt and white blouse. Occasionally the sailor outfit is used for girls. The uniform codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion. It is common for boys and girls to wear brightly coloured caps to prevent traffic accidents.

It is normal for uniforms to be worn outside of school areas. However, this is going out of fashion and many students are wearing casual dress. The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally consists of a military style for boys and a sailor outfit for girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms.

They consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer or sweater vest with school crest, and tailored trousers often not of the same colour as the blazer or sweater vest for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan skirt for girls. Much like the male uniform, the gakuran , the sailor outfit bears a similarity to military-styled naval uniforms.

The uniform generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a pleated skirt. There are seasonal variations for summer and winter: A ribbon is tied in the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse.

Several variations on the ribbon include neckties , bolo ties , neckerchiefs , and bows. Common colours are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black. Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part of the uniform. The socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the prescribed uniform, alternate forms of legwear such as loose socks , knee-length stockings, or similar are commonly matched by more fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.

Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version usually consisting of a white dress shirt and dark slacks for boys and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with tie for girls and a sports-activity uniform a polyester track suit for year-round use and a T-shirt and shorts for summer activities.

Depending on the discipline level of their school, students may wear seasonal and activity uniforms in the same classroom during the day. Students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing them incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Miniskirts have been very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and they came to be worn within the Kogal culture.

In Lebanon, all private schools require uniforms. Most of the uniforms are made of a skirt, a shirt, and a pull-over for girls, and for boys it's made of trousers, a shirt, and a pull-over. Some public schools there do not require school uniforms. In Lesotho school uniforms are still compulsory. In Malaysia , school uniforms Malay: Pakaian Seragam Sekolah are compulsory for all students who attend public schools. Western-style school uniforms were introduced to present-day Malaysia in the late 19th century during the British colonial era.

The present design was standardised beginning in January The uniforms at Malaysian public schools are as follows: Students are required to wear white socks and white shoes with the above uniform. For modesty reasons, most schools require female students who wear the baju kurung to wear a plain-coloured camisole underneath. In addition to these, schools usually have badges which must be sewn or ironed on to the uniform — generally at the left chest.

Some schools require students to sew their name tags in addition to the badge.

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